Trafficking and Modern Slavery


February 27, 2023

Defining Human Trafficking 

The United Nations defines human trafficking as: 'The Act of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.'

Below are the three elements of trafficking:

1.Movement or recruitment

2.Deception or coercion

3.The Purpose of exploitation

Modern Slavery: is defined as the recruitment, movement, harboring, or receiving of children, women, or men through the use of force, coercion, abuse of vulnerability, deception, or other means for the purposes of exploitation. In cases with children, it can be the case that only the purpose is needed not deception and coercion. Both modern slavery and trafficking are forms of sexual exploitation.

Types of Exploitation 

  1. Sexual Exploitation 
  2. Labour Exploitation 
  3. Domestic Servitude 
  4. Forced marriage/sham marriage 
  5. Forced criminality 
  6. Organ harvesting 

What is labor exploitation?

Forcing people to work for little or no wages. It one of the most common forms of modern slavery.

What is domestic servitude?

A form of trafficking performed in private residences. It is a type of forced labour whereby the victim is usually expected to work around a person's house every day and be on call 24/7.

What is forced marriage/sham marriage?

sham marriage or civil partnership is one in which all of the following apply: one or both of the parties is not a 'relevant national', there is no genuine relationship between the parties, either or both of the parties enter into the marriage or civil partnership for the purpose of circumventing immigration controls.

forced marriage can be coupled with other forms of slavery. Children who are trafficked for sex may and can also be sold into forced marriages. An adult who is forcibly married may then be trafficked for labour or sex by and for the financial gain of his or her spouse.

What is forced criminality?

Forced criminality involves victims, often children, who are forced to commit a range of crimes, including bag snatching, theft forced begging, forced sham marriage, and cannabis cultivation.

What is Organ Harvesting?

Organ harvesting is the illegal practice of surgically removing a victim's organs against their will. They are then sold on the black market for transplantation.

Possible Indicators of Trafficking (specifically sex trafficking)

  1. The person appears under 18 years old 
  2. The person appears unwilling, sad, or disengaged 
  3. Signs of physical or psychological abuse 
  4. Poor communication skills or is not in possession of their own legal documents
  5. The person seems to be bonded by debt or has money deducted from their salary 
  6. The person is distrustful of authorities 
  7. The person acts as though they are under the control of someone else. They have limited free movement. 
  8. They have little or no contact with their family or has threats made against themselves and family members. 
  9. They appear to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol 
  10. The person works in an unhygienic or overly secured environment 
  11. Bookings and payments are taken through a third party. 
  12. Any physical injuries prohibit them from understanding their rights. 

The Difference between Sex Work and Trafficking 

1. Free will

Sex workers operate out of free will and independence. They arrange their own work and manage their careers. People who are trafficked do not offer services out of their free will. Some individuals are sexually exploited.

2. Force, exploitation, and violated human rights

Some people are coerced or deceived into providing sexual services. They are forced to work long hours with little or no pay. They can be threatened with violence and often held hostage by their trafficker.

3. Consented Advertising

Independent sex workers use adult services websites. They will use these as a way to advertise their services. They contain control over their services and use them to help increase their own personal safety.

4. Trafficked Advertisement

On the same adult service websites, there are often ads selling trafficked services of sexually exploited victims. Sometimes these ads can be difficult to spot as they appear next to legitimate consenting ads.


If you suspect that someone is being trafficked or a victim of modern slavery you can report to the following:

If you suspect someone is in immediate danger call 999 (UK) or 911 (US)


Modern slavery helpline:\ 08000121700

National trafficking helpline 


IBF - Intervention center for victims of trafficking in women\ +431-7969298


Payoke\ +3232011690


National Human Trafficking Resource Line\ 080020100

Czech Republic

La Strada SOS Hotline\ +420222717171


Hotline for the Confidential report of suspicions of trafficking:\ 1800250025


9.CoMensha\ +31334481186


Slovak Crisis Center DOTYK\ +421903704784


National Human Trafficking Hotline\ 1-888-373-7888

Take our Quiz to Test your Knowledge:


General Information

The information provided by Freyja is for general information purposes only. All information on the site is provided in good faith, however, we make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability, or completeness of any information on the site. Under no circumstances shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site or reliance on any information provided on the site. Your use of the site and your reliance on any information on the site is solely at your own risk.

Medical Advice

This website does not provide medical advice. The information provides by Freyja is for general information purposes only. Under no circumstances shall we have any liability for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site or reliance on any information provided on the site. Your use of the site and your reliance on any information on the site is solely at your own risk. No material on this site is intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek advice from a medical professional, and never delay in seeking any medical advice because of something you have read on this website.

The site may contain (or you may be sent through the site) links to other websites or content belonging to or originating from third parties or links to websites and features in banners or other advertising. Such external links are not investigated, monitored, or checked for accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability, or completeness by us. We do not warrant, endorse, guarantee, or assume responsibility for the accuracy or reliability of any information offered by third-party websites linked through the site or any website or feature. We will not be a party to or in a way be responsible for monitoring any transaction between you and third-party providers of products or services.


The site cannot and does not contain fitness advice. The fitness information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals. We do not provide any kind of fitness advice. The use or reliance of any information contained on the site is solely at your own risk.